الكاتبة الالمانية هيرتا موللر ” Herta Muller ” تفوز بجائزة نوبل للآداب كتابة: عشتروت

فازت الروائية والشاعرة الألمانية هيرتا موللر بجائزة نوبل للأدب لهذا العام. واستناداً إلى تصريح الأكاديمية السويدية ، فإنّ موللر ، وهي ألمانية مولودة في رومانيا ، استطاعت “بشعرها المكثف ، ونثرها الصريح أنْ تصور حياة المحرومين”.هكذا ، تكون هيرتا موللر هي المرأة الثانية عشرة التي تفوز بجائزة نوبل للأدب منذ انطلاقتها عام 1909 ، تُمنح الجائزة التي تبلغ قيمتها عشرة ملايين كرونر سويديّ (1,4 مليون دولار أميركيّ) للشخص الذي يكون نتاجه في ميدان الأدب “أكثر الأعمال تميزاً ، ومثالية ، وسلامة” ، كما ورد في وصية الفريد نوبل عام ,1895ولدت موللر في رومانيا عام 1953 ، ونقلت في أعمالها مشاعر الغربة والمطاردة لأسباب سياسية ، ورفضت التعاون مع الجهات الأمنية لنظام تشاوشيسكو ، وفقدت وظيفتها كمعلمة ثم راحت تتعرض لتهديدات متكررة حتى هاجرت عام 1987 ، وهي تعيش الآن في برلين حيث فازت بعدد من الجوائز الأدبية ومن بينها جائزة كلايست ، وجائزة فرانز كافكا اللتين تعتبران من أهم الجوائز الأدبية الألمانية ، بالإضافة إلى جائزة إمباك الأدبية للرواية ، والتي تبلغ قيمتها 85 ألف جينيه إسترلينيّ ، وقد فازت بهذه الجائزة عن روايتها “أرض الخوخ الأخضر”. الرواية نفسها تحكي قصة خمسة شباب رومانيين يعيشون تحت حكم تشاوشيسكو الدكتاتوريّ ، وقالت موللر إنها كتبت تلك الرواية في ذكرى أصدقائها الرومانيين الذين “قتلوا تحت نظام تشاوشيسكو”. ومع أنّ موللر غادرت رومانيا وهي في العشرين من عمرها إلاّ أنها استمرت بالكتابة حول القهر ، والمنفى ، والدكتاتورية ، وذلك في رواياتها وأشعارها على حد سواء.وكالعادة لم يكن اسم الاديبة الفائزة في قائمة الترشيحات الاعتيادية التي كانت تضم الفرنسي جان ماري غوستاف لوكليزيووالاسرائيلي اموس عوز والاميركيون فيليب روث وكورماك ماكارثي وجويس كارول اوتس والكندية مارغريت اتوود والجزائرية آسيا جبار اضافة الى المرشح المزمن ادونيس .

Herta Müller (born August 17, 1953) is a Romanian-born German novelist, poet and essayist noted for her works depicting the harsh conditions of life in Romania under Ceauşescu. She was married to novelist Richard Wagner. She is the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature of 2009.

1 Biography
2 Works
3 Editor
4 Awards

Biography

Herta Müller was born in Niţchidorf, Timiş County, the daughter of Swabian farmers. She studied German studies and Romanian literature at the Timişoara University. In 1976, Müller began working as a translator for an engineering company, but was dismissed in 1979 for her refusal to cooperate with the Securitate, the Communist regime’s secret police. Initially, she made a living by teaching kindergarten and giving private German lessons. Her first book was published in Romania (in German) in 1982, and appeared only in a censored version, as with most publications of the time.

In 1987, Müller left for Germany with her husband. Over the following years she received many lectureships at universities in Germany and abroad. She currently lives in Berlin. Müller received membership of the German Academy for Writing and Poetry in 1995, and other positions followed. In 1997 she withdrew from the PEN centre of Germany in protest of its merge with the former German Democratic Republic branch.

In July 2008, Müller sent a critical open letter to Horia-Roman Patapievici, president of the Romanian Cultural Institute. This was in reaction to the support given by the institute to a Romanian-German Summer School involving two former informants of the Securitate.[1]

The Nobel Foundation awarded the Nobel Literature prize to Müller “who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed.”[2]

Works
Niederungen, short stories, censored version published in Bucharest 1982. Uncensored version published in Germany 1984. Published in English as Nadirs in 1999.[3] Drückender Tango (“Oppressive Tango”), stories, Bucharest 1984
Der Mensch ist ein großer Fasan auf der Welt, Berlin 1986. Published in English as The Passport, Serpent’s Tail, 1989 ISBN 9781852421397
Barfüßiger Februar (“Barefoot February”), Berlin 1987
Reisende auf einem Bein, Berlin 1989. Published in English as Traveling on One Leg, Hydra Books/Northwestern University Press, 1992.[4] Wie Wahrnehmung sich erfindet (“How Perception Invents Itself”), Paderborn 1990
Der Teufel sitzt im Spiegel (“The Devil is Sitting in the Mirror”), Berlin 1991
Der Fuchs war damals schon der Jäger (“Even Back Then, the Fox Was the Hunter), Reinbek by Hamburg 1992
Eine warme Kartoffel ist ein warmes Bett (“A Warm Potato Is a Warm Bed), Hamburg 1992
Der Wächter nimmt seinen Kamm (“The Guard Takes His Comb”), Reinbek by Hamburg 1993
Angekommen wie nicht da (“Arrived As If Not There”), Lichtenfels 1994
Herztier, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1994. Published in an English translation by Michael Hofmann as The Land of Green Plums, Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt & Company, New York, 1996[5] Hunger und Seide (“Hunger and Silk”), essays, Reinbek by Hamburg 1995
In der Falle (“In a Trap”), Göttingen 1996
Heute wär ich mir lieber nicht begegnet, Reinbek by Hamburg 1997. Published in English as The Appointment, Metropolitan Books/Picador, New York/London 2001
Der fremde Blick oder das Leben ist ein Furz in der Laterne (“The Foreign View, or Life Is a Fart in a Lantern”), Göttingen 1999
Im Haarknoten wohnt eine Dame (“A Lady Lives in the Hair Knot”), poetry, Reinbek by Hamburg 2000
Heimat ist das, was gesprochen wird (“Home Is What Is Spoken There”), Blieskastel 2001
Der König verneigt sich und tötet (“The King Bows and Kills), essays, Munich (and elsewhere) 2003
Die blassen Herren mit den Mokkatassen (“The Pale Gentlemen with their Espresso Cups”), Munich (and elsewhere) 2005

Editor
Theodor Kramer: Die Wahrheit ist, man hat mir nichts getan (“The Truth Is No One Did Anything to Me”), Vienna 1999
Die Handtasche (“The Purse”), Künzelsau 2001
Wenn die Katze ein Pferd wäre, könnte man durch die Bäume reiten (“If the Cat Were a Horse, You Could Ride Through the Trees”), Künzelsau 2001

Awards
1981 Adam-Müller-Guttenbrunn Sponsored Prize the Temeswar Literature Circle
1984 Aspekte Literature Prize
1985 Rauris Literature Prize
1985 Encouragement Prize of the Literature Award of Bremen
1987 Ricarda-Huch Prize of Darmstadt
1989 Marieluise-Fleißer Prize of Ingolstadt
1989 German Language Prize, together with Gerhardt Csejka, Helmuth Frauendorfer, Klaus Hensel, Johann Lippet, Werner Söllner, William Totok, Richard Wagner
1990 Roswitha Medal of Knowledge of Bad Gandersheim
1991 Kranichsteiner Literature Prize
1993 Critical Prize for Literature
1994 Kleist Prize
1995 Aristeion Prize
1995/96 City-writer of Frankfurt-Bergen-Enkheim
1997 Literature Prize of Graz
1998 Ida-Dehmel Literature Prize and the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award for Herztier / The Land of Green Plums
1999 Franz-Kafka Prize
2001 CICERO Speaker Prize
2002 Carl-Zuckmayer-Medaille of Rhineland-Palatinate
2003 Joseph-Breitbach Prize (together with Christoph Meckel and Harald Weinrich)
2004 Literature Prize of Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung
2005 Berlin Literature Prize
2006 Würth Prize for European Literature und Walter-Hasenclever Literature Prize
2009 Nobel Prize in Literature

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/l…aureates/2009/. Retrieved 2009-10-08.

Muller’s Works – Books

The Land of Green Plums

Five Romanian youths under the Ceausescu regime are the focus of this moving depiction of the struggle to become adults who keep “eyes wide open and tightly shut at the same time.” Through the suicide of a mutual friend, the unnamed narrator?a young woman studying to become a translator?meets a trio of young men with whom she shares a subjugated political and philosophic rebelliousness. The jobs the state assigns them after graduation pull each to a different quadrant of the country, and this, as well as the narrator’s new friendship with the daughter of a prominent Party member, strains their relations. The group manages to maintain its closeness anyway, through coded letters bearing strands of the sender’s hair as a tamper-warning. As the friends begin to lose their jobs and grow weary of being followed, threatened and pulled in for semi-regular interrogations, each one thinks increasingly about escape. Terrifyingly, the narrator finds herself changing into a stranger: “someone who keeps company with misery, to make sure it stays put.” Making her American debut, Muller is well-served by the workmanlike translation; though her lyrical writing falters badly at times (such as the baffling, repeated metaphor that gives the book its title), it also soars to rarefied heights. Most importantly, few books have conveyed with such clarity the convergence of terror and boredom under totalitarianism.
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Traveling on One Leg

The protagonist of Herta Muller’s Traveling on One Leg is Irene, a fragile woman born to a German family in Romania, who has recently emigrated from Romania to Germany. The novel focuses on Irene’s relationship with three men: Franz, whom she met in Romania and who was unwilling to respond to her love for him; Stefan, a friend of Franz’s; and Thomas, a bi***ual bookseller in perpetual crisis.

Despite being born to a German family, Irene’s place in Germany is as a recent emigre and an unassimilated Romanian German. She feels neither longing for Romania nor any comfort in her newly adopted Germany. Politically and socially isolated, Irene moves within the emotional orbit of these three men, while at the same time moving between West Berlin, Marburg, and Frankfurt, taking a dissonant journey within strange yet familiar territory.

Characterized by the same sense of profound isolation found in Muller’s The Land of Green Plums (see page 20), Traveling on One Leg is a poignant exploration of exile, homeland, and identity.
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Nadirs

Juxtaposing reality and fantasy, nightmares and dark laughter, “Nadirs” is a collection of largely autobiographical stories based on Herta Muller’s childhood in the Romanian countryside. The individual tales reveal a child’s often nightmarish impressions of life in her village. Seamlessly mixing reality with dream-like images, they brilliantly convey the inner, troubled life of a child and at the same time capture the violence and corruption of life under an oppressive state. Herta Muller has been one of the most prolific and acclaimed German-language writers of the last decade. Born in 1953 in the Banat, a German-language region of Romania, she emigrated to West Berlin in 1987 and currently resides in Hamburg. She has received numerous literary awards, including the Kleist Prize. In 1998 her novel “The Land of Green Plums” was awarded the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award.
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The Appointment

From the winner of the IMPAC Award, a fierce novel about a young Romanian woman’s discovery of betrayal in the most intimate reaches of her life

“I’ve been summoned. Thursday, ten sharp.” Thus begins one day in the life of a young clothing-factory worker during Ceaucescu’s totalitarian regime. She has been questioned before; this time, she believes, will be worse. Her crime? Sewing notes into the linings of men’s suits bound for Italy. “Marry me,” the notes say, with her name and address. Anything to get out of the country.

As she rides the tram to her interrogation, her thoughts stray to her friend Lilli, shot trying to flee to Hungary, to her grandparents, deported after her first husband informed on them, to Major Albu, her interrogator, who begins each session with a wet kiss on her fingers, and to Paul, her lover, her one source of trust, despite his constant drunkenness. In her distraction, she misses her stop to find herself on an unfamiliar street. And what she discovers there makes her fear of the appointment pale by comparison.

Herta Müller pitilessly renders the humiliating terrors of a crushing regime. Bone-spare and intense, The Appointment confirms her standing as one of Europe’s greatest writers.

المصدر : ويكيبيديا

– وكالات الانباء

– موقع منظمة جائزة نوبل

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